OCO, the OpenCitations Ontology

IRI:
https://w3id.org/oc/ontology
Version IRI:
https://w3id.org/oc/ontology/1.0
Date:
23/09/2016
Current version:
1.1
Authors:
Silvio Peroni

Abstract

OCO, the OpenCitations Ontology, is not yet another bibliographic ontology, rather it is just a place where existing and complementary ontological entities from several other ontologies are grouped together for the purpose of providing descriptive metadata for the [OpenCitations Corpus (OCC)](http://opencitations.net).

Table of Content

  1. Introduction
  2. Classes
  3. Object Properties
  4. Data Properties
  5. Named Individuals
  6. Annotation Properties
  7. Namespace Declarations

Introduction

OCO, the OpenCitations Ontology, is not yet another bibliographic ontology, rather it is just a place where existing and complementary ontological entities from several other ontologies are grouped together for the purpose of providing descriptive metadata for the [OpenCitations Corpus (OCC)](http://opencitations.net). * bibliographic resources (br), class fabio:Expression and its subclasses – resources that either cites or are cited by other bibliographic resources (e.g. journal articles), or that contain such citing/cited resources (e.g. journals); * resource embodiments (re), class fabio:Manifestation and its subclasses – details of the physical or digital forms in which the bibliographic resources are made available by their publishers; * bibliographic entries (be), class biro:BibliographicReference – the literal textual bibliographic entries occurring in the reference lists within bibliographic resources, that reference other bibliographic resources; * responsible agents (ra), class foaf:Agent – names of agents having certain roles with respect to bibliographic resources (i.e. names of authors, editors, publishers, etc.); agent roles (ar), class pro:RoleInTime – roles held by agents with respect to bibliographic resources (e.g. author, editor, publisher); * identifiers (id) (class datacite:Identifier) – external identifiers (e.g. DOI, ORCID, PubMedID) associated with the bibliographic entities.

Classes

academic proceedingsc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/AcademicProceedings

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
A document containing the programme and collected papers, or their abstracts, presented at an academic meeting.
has super-classes
expressionc

activityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Activity

is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov
In the OpenCitations Corpus, this class is used to describe a curatorial activity relating to an entity.
has sub-classes
createc, modifyc, replacec

agentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Agent

is defined by
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1
An agent (eg. person, group, software or physical artifact).

associationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Association

is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov
In the OpenCitations Corpus, an association allows one to link a particular role held by a provenance agent with respect to a curatorial activity.

bibliographic referencec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/biro/BibliographicReference

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/biro
An expression of a bibliographic record in a specific format, that references a particular textual or data publication (or a work in preparation for publication). Each bibliographic reference is a list of items containing entities that describe aspects of the referenced work - for example authors, title, journal, publication year - selected from the bibliographic record. Note that because different journal styles may require omission of elements of the bibliographic record in references included in a paper's reference list (e.g. the title, the identifier, the names of the eighth and subsequent authors), and because errors can be introduced when an author creates a bibliographic reference, the bibliographic reference to a published work may not be a complete or fully accurate expression of the information contained within the authoritative bibliographic record for that work.

bookc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/Book

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
A non-serial document that is complete in one volume or a designated finite number of volumes. A book published by a publisher is usually identified by an International Standard Book Number (ISBN), and may be manifested as a physical printed publication on paper bound in a hard or soft cover, or in electronic format as an 'e-book'.
has super-classes
expressionc

book chapterc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/BookChapter

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
A defined chapter of a book, usually with a separate title or number.
has super-classes
expressionc

book seriesc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/BookSeries

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
A sequence of books having certain characteristics in common that are formally identified together as a group - for instance, the books in the Law, Governance and Technology Series published by Springer.
has super-classes
expressionc
is disjoint with
book setc

book setc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/BookSet

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
A set of books having certain characteristics in common that informally allow their identification together as a group - for instance, the books of the Harry Potter saga.
has super-classes
expressionc
is disjoint with
book seriesc

createc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Create

is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov-dc-refinements
The activity of creating a new entity.
has super-classes
activityc

data filec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/DataFile

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
A realisation of a fabio:Dataset (a frbr:Work) containing a defined collection of data with specific content and possibly with a specific version number, that can be embodied as a fabio:Digital Manifestation (a frbr:Manifestation with a specific format) and be represented by a specific fabio:ComputerFile (a frbr:Item) on someone's hard drive.
has super-classes
expressionc

digital manifestationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/DigitalManifestation

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
A manifestation that represents data in binary form, encoding the data as a series of 0s and 1s.
has super-classes
manifestationc

entityc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Entity

is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov
In the OpenCitations Corpus, an entity represents a particular snapshot recording the metadata associated with another individual entity at a particular time.

expressionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/Expression

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
In the OpenCitations Corpus, this class is used to represent any bibliographic resource, i.e. citing papers, cited resources, and containers (e.g. journals, books, proceedings) for those resources.
has sub-classes
academic proceedingsc, bookc, book chapterc, book seriesc, book setc, data filec, expression collectionc, journalc, journal articlec, journal issuec, journal volumec, proceedings paperc, reference bookc, report documentc, seriesc, specification documentc, thesisc

expression collectionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/ExpressionCollection

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
A collection of expressions, for example a periodical or a book series.
has super-classes
expressionc

identifierc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/datacite/Identifier

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/datacite
An identifier that uniquely identities an entity – such as a funding agency, a person and a resource – belonging to a particular scheme such as those specified by individuals of the class datacite:IdentifierScheme.

identifier schemec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/datacite/IdentifierScheme

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/datacite
The identifier scheme used to identify an entity such as a funding agency, a person or a resource. Individual schemes are defines as members of this class.

journalc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/Journal

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
A scholarly periodical primarily devoted to the publication of original research papers. [Printed and electronic manifestations of the same journal are usually identified by separate print and electronic International Standard Serial Numbers (ISSN or eISSN, respectively), that identifies the journal as a whole, not to individual issues of it.]
has super-classes
expressionc

journal articlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/JournalArticle

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
An article, typically the realization of a research paper reporting original research findings, published in a journal issue.
has super-classes
expressionc

journal issuec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/JournalIssue

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
A particular published issue of a journal, one or more of which will constitute a volume of the journal.
has super-classes
expressionc

journal volumec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/JournalVolume

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
A particular published volume of a journal, comprising one or more journal issues.
has super-classes
expressionc

manifestationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/Manifestation

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
In the OpenCitations Corpus, this class is used to represent any detail of the physical or digital forms in which the bibliographic resources are made available by their publishers.
has sub-classes
digital manifestationc, print objectc

modifyc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Modify

is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov-dc-refinements
The activity of modifying (adding/removing) data associated with an existing entity.
has super-classes
activityc

print objectc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/PrintObject

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
An analog manifestation in physical printed form, typically on paper.
has super-classes
manifestationc

proceedings paperc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/ProceedingsPaper

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
A paper, typically the realization of a research paper reporting original research findings, usually published within an academic proceedings volume.
has super-classes
expressionc

provenance agentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Agent

is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov
In the OpenCitations Corpus, a provenance agent, such as a person, organisation or process, is responsible to create or modifie entities metadata, it is used as source provider of those metadata.

reference bookc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/ReferenceBook

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
A book containing authoritative factual information, such as a dictionary, encyclopaedia, handbook or field guide, which is a realisation of a certain reference work and may contain several reference entries.
has super-classes
expressionc

replacec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#Replace

is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov-dc-refinements
The activity of replacing one entity with another.
has super-classes
activityc

report documentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/ReportDocument

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
The realization of a report, usually in printed form.
has super-classes
expressionc

rolec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/pro/Role

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/pro
A role an agent may have. Individual members of this class or its sub-classes are used to specify particular roles.

role in timec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/pro/RoleInTime

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/pro
A particular situation that describe a role an agent may have, that can be restricted to a particular time interval.
is in domain of
has nextop
is in range of
has nextop
A role in time describes always: * a particular role R * a particular agent A holding R * a particular time interval T in which A holds R (optional) * one or more entities (e.g. a particular bibliographic entity or a specific institution) that defines a context for R held by A. (At least one contextual entity should be specified for a particular role).

seriesc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/Series

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
A sequence of expressions having certain characteristics in common that are formally identified together as a group.
has super-classes
expressionc

specification documentc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/SpecificationDocument

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
The realization of a specification (a standard, a workflow, etc.).
has super-classes
expressionc

thesisc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/Thesis

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
A book authored by a student containing a formal presentations of research outputs submitted for examination in completion of a course of study at an institution of higher education, to fulfil the requirements for an academic degree. Also know as a dissertation. [For the alternative meaning of the word 'thesis', namely the formulation of a concept, hypothesis, idea, point of view or theory presented for review and/or discussion, use fabio:Proposition.]
has super-classes
expressionc

Object Properties

citesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/cito/cites

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/cito
The citing entity cites the cited entity, either directly and explicitly (as in the reference list of a journal article), indirectly (e.g. by citing a more recent paper by the same group on the same topic), or implicitly (e.g. as in artistic quotations or parodies, or in cases of plagiarism).

had primary sourceop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadPrimarySource

is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov
This property allows the specification of a primary source for a resource, i.e. something produced by some agent with direct experience and knowledge about such resource.

had roleop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#hadRole

is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov
This property allows one to associate a role as the function of an entity or agent with respect to an activity.

has embodimentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#embodiment

An expression embodied in a manifestation.

has exemplarop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#exemplar

A manifestation exemplified in an item.

has identifierop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/datacite/hasIdentifier

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/datacite
An object property specifying a datacite:Identifier that provides a unique identifer for the entity (either a funder, a person or a resource).

has nextop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/oc/ontology/hasNext

This property allows to specify the following role in a sequence of agents' roles of the same type associated with the same bibliographic resource (so as to define, for instance, its ordered list of authors).

has characteristics: asymmetric, irreflexive

has domain
role in timec
has range
role in timec

has partop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#part

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/frbr
A part of an expression.

has qualified associationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#qualifiedAssociation

is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov
An activity association is an assignment of responsibility to an agent for an activity, indicating that the agent had a role in the activity.

involves agentop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#agent

is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov
This property references a provenance agent which influenced a resource.

is document context forop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/pro/isDocumentContextFor

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/pro
A property relating a document to the role for which that document provides the context (e.g. relating a document to the role of author or peer-reviewer of that document).

is part ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#partOf

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/frbr
An expression (e.g. a article) which is incorporated in another expression (e.g. a journal issue).

is role held byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/pro/isHeldBy

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/pro
A property relating a role in time that an agent holds, or a contribution situation that an agent makes, to that agent.

is specialization ofop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#specializationOf

is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov
This property allows one to indicate that an entity that is a specialization of another shares all aspects of the latter, and additionally presents more specific aspects of the same thing as the latter.

referencesop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/biro/references

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/biro
The relation between a bibliographic reference and the publication being referenced.

uses identifier schemeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/datacite/usesIdentifierScheme

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/datacite
An object property permitting specification of the identifier scheme used to provide the identifier for an entity – either a funder, a person or a resource – defined as an individual of the class datacite:IdentifierScheme.

was derived fromop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasDerivedFrom

is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov
This property allows the specification of a derivation from another entity, where a derivation is a transformation of an entity into another, an update of an entity resulting in a new one, or the construction of a new entity based on a pre-existing entity.

was generated byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasGeneratedBy

is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov
This property allows one to specify the creation of an existing entity by an activity.

was invalidated byop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#wasInvalidatedBy

is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov
This property allows one to specify the invalidation (i.e. the start of the destruction, cessation, or expiry) of an existing entity by an activity.

with roleop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/pro/withRole

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/pro
An object property connecting an agent's role in time to a definition of the type of role held by this agent, specified as an instance of the class pro:Role or of one of its sub-classes.

Data Properties

has contentdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/c4o/hasContent

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/biro
It is used to specify the textual content of a bibliographic reference.

has descriptiondp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/description

is defined by
http://purl.org/dc/terms
A textual description of a resource.

has editiondp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/basic/2.0/edition

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
An identifier for one of several alternative issues of a magazine, a book or other resource.

has ending pagedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/basic/2.0/endingPage

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
Identifies the last page of an entity such as a journal article.

has family namedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/familyName

is defined by
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1
The family name of a person.

has given namedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/givenName

is defined by
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1
The given name of a person.

has literal valuedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://www.essepuntato.it/2010/06/literalreification/hasLiteralValue

is defined by
http://www.essepuntato.it/2010/06/literalreification
It is used to specify the literal value that an identifier has.

has namedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name

is defined by
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1
The name of an agent.

has numberdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/hasSequenceIdentifier

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
A literal (for example a number or a letter) that identifies the sequence position of a work within a particular context, for example a book in a book series, a chapter in a document, a volume in a journal.

has publication yeardp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/hasPublicationYear

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
The year in which a resource is published.

has starting pagedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/basic/2.0/startingPage

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
Identifies the first page of an entity such as a journal article.

has subtitledp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/fabio/hasSubtitle

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/fabio
A secondary title that follows the main title of a work.

has titledp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/terms/title

is defined by
http://purl.org/dc/terms
A name given to a resource. Typically, the title will be the name by which the resource is formally known.

has update querydp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: https://w3id.org/oc/ontology/hasUpdateQuery

is defined by
https://w3id.org/oc/ontology
This property allows one to specify the UPDATE SPARQL query that keeps track of which metadata have been modified as the result of a modification of some of the metadata or the merging of the metadata relating to a particular bibliographic entity.

was generated at timedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#generatedAtTime

is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov
The date on which a particular entity was created.

was invalidated at timedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#invalidatedAtTime

is defined by
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov
The date on which a particular entity was invalidated.

Named Individuals

authorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/pro/author

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/pro
The role a person has of authorship of some material (for example a document).

editorni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/pro/editor

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/pro
The role of a person who selects and prepares for publication material written and submitted by authors.

publisherni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/spar/pro/publisher

is defined by
http://purl.org/spar/pro
The role of a person or an organization that published material, or of a publisher's employee who has responsibility for such publications.

Annotation Properties

commentap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#comment

contributorap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/contributor

creatorap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator

dateap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/date

descriptionap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/description

labelap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#label

preferred namespace prefixap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/vocab/vann/preferredNamespacePrefix

preferred namespace uriap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/vocab/vann/preferredNamespaceUri

rightsap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/rights

see alsoap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#seeAlso

titleap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/title

version infoap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#versionInfo

Namespace Declarations back to ToC

default namespace
https://w3id.org/oc/ontology#
0-1
http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
06
http://www.essepuntato.it/2010/06/
2-0
http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/basic/2.0/
biro
http://purl.org/spar/biro/
c4o
http://purl.org/spar/c4o/
cito
http://purl.org/spar/cito/
core
http://purl.org/vocab/frbr/core#
datacite
http://purl.org/spar/datacite/
dc
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
fabio
http://purl.org/spar/fabio/
foaf
http://xmlns.com/foaf/
literalreification
http://www.essepuntato.it/2010/06/literalreification/
ns
http://www.w3.org/ns/
oc
https://w3id.org/oc/
ontology
https://rawgit.com/essepuntato/opencitations/master/ontology/
owl
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#
pro
http://purl.org/spar/pro/
prov
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#
rdf
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfs
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
spar
http://purl.org/spar/
terms
http://purl.org/dc/terms/
vann
http://purl.org/vocab/vann/
xsd
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#

This HTML document was obtained by processing the OWL ontology source code through LODE, Live OWL Documentation Environment, developed by Silvio Peroni.